Work out safely in the gym and at home
Brendan Rolfe, DipA, PTS, NWS
If you don't use proper exercise technique when working out, you run the risk of injury. Our safety tips will ensure you have a fun - and a safe - workout.
Loud grunting. Sweat left on benches. Chatting on a cellphone. Likely, one of these actions makes your list of irritating things people do at the gym. What grinds my gears? When people put their health and safety at risk by doing exercises improperly or without attention to form. Daily, without fail, I see people in the gym doing exercises that are dangerous and more harmful than good. Fitness can be a minefield at the best of times. There’s a vast array of information out there on how to tone your buns, sculpt your arms, or (my personal favourite) blast your belly fat. There are thousands of exercises to tighten and tone your body, but how is one to know which ones are truly beneficial and which ones can ruin your body? Believe it or not, it is actually quite simple. Proceed with caution First and foremost, I believe there are no bad exercises, only bad exercisers. Any movement can be beneficial when done with form, focus, and appropriate resistance. Many of the issues associated with bad form are a result of the exerciser using resistance that is beyond their abilities. The following are four popular exercises for shoulders, lats, abdominals, and legs that hold high correspondence with bad form and put you at risk every time you do them. But fear not, for in their place I will provide alternative exercises that target the same muscles, but will give you better results! Shoulders Don’t do this: Barbell high row This exercise for your shoulders puts the rotator cuff in a position of weakness while under a load and has been known to shear the ends of the clavicle where it meets the humerus. The exercise is done standing upright and holding a barbell with hands hip-width apart. You then slide the bar up along your body up to shoulder height while raising your elbows out to the sides. Many do it with momentum and a back sway. Just don’t do it. Do this: Single arm lateral dumbbell raise
Latissimus dorsi muscle (lats) Don’t do this: Lat pulldown behind the head Exercisers on the pulldown machine crane their neck forward. With an almost abdominal crunch sway, they yank the bar down to the back of their neck. It may target the lats, but it immediately puts the cervical vertebrae at risk as well as creating a risk for strained trapezius muscles and various rotator cuff injuries. Do this: Laying resistance band pulldown
Abdominal muscles Don’t do this: Straight leg abdominal lifts Lying on their back, as if in bed, exercisers arch their lower back until it looks like an alien is going to burst out of their tummy. They lift their straightened legs into the air above them, whereupon they let their legs come crashing back to the ground. That is one ... one ugly exercise, that is. Hip flexors are easily strained from this position. The lower back muscles, as well as lumbar vertebrae, are at serious risk. The worst part? This is a really ineffective exercise for abdominals. The movement contracts the muscles but doesn’t lengthen or shorten them, and so optimal activation is minimal. Do this: Reverse crunches
Legs Don’t do it like this: Barbell deadlift Barbell deadlifts are intended to be a leg exercise, namely for the hamstrings. End of story. They are not designed to be a back exercise, and if that is where you feel it, you are doing it wrong and risk injuring your lumbar spine, slipping a disc, or getting a hernia. Do it like this: Barbell deadlift The ideal deadlift is done from the floor.
Born free As a personal trainer, I am often asked what machines I recommend most to someone trying to lose weight and gain strength. My answer is always: none. Whenever possible (it is always possible), choose to do free weight or body weight exercises. More often than not, these kinds of exercises force you to work your core while you work other muscles. Machines allow you to sit. They support you and basically teach you laziness and dysfunction. Ask a certified personal trainer to show you some free weight exercises, and consult your local nutrition or health food store to get the most out of your workouts.
Head-to-toe tips for proper form Always pay special attention to form throughout the duration of an exercise. This will not only prevent injury, but also promote good posture, and you’ll achieve better results.
Reps and sets for beginners For strength